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Federal ministry of education scholarship




Bridging the Gap; The different strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research Bridging the Gap; The different strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research. Bridging the Gap: The strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research. Their underpinning technical, epistemological and ontological considerations and implications for the conduct of a research project. By Partson Musosa Phiri-Cert.Ed; Dip.Ed.(SpEd); BEd (ZOU): MEd ( Hull ): EdD (Hull) Introduction. Research, is an enterprise dedicated to finding out. No matter what one might want to find out though, there are likely to be many ways of doing so. People have for long been concerned to come to grips with their environment and to understand the nature of the phenomena why is this excerpt an example of a strong argument? presents to their senses (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2000; Eichelberger, 1980). Literally, research may mean to search repeatedly or to examine something from different points of view. It student finance university of law in this sense therefore, that ‘research’ can be understood as meaning examining something federal ministry of education scholarship, ‘intensively’, and ‘closely’, ‘critically’ in order to discover a phenomenon we did not hitherto know existed or to confirm or reject our previous assumptions (Sikes, 2003); it is the most successful approach to the discovery of truth or knowledge (Cohen et al, west wyoming community college 5). In the educational sense, Bassey (1999; 39), defines research as a “….critical enquiry aimed at informing educational judgments and decisions in order to improve educational action”. In the context of this essay, educational research is according to Anderson and Arsenault (1998; 6), defined watch steven universe online season 5 “a disciplined attempt to address questions to solve problems through the collection and analysis of primary data for the purpose of description, explanation, generalization and prediction”. An Overview. A notion from Hitchcock and Hughes (1989) suggests that inquiry emanates from assumptions. Hence, different researchers may oporto global university universidade portucalense different assumptions about the nature of truth or knowledge and its acquisition (Cohen, et al, 2000; Gall, Gall and Borg, 2003). The major question, however, which has what is dropout in education tended to divide educational inquiry, is threefold. Whether the differences between these assumptions, are associated with; Firstly, different ways of constructing reality (ontology), which Denzin and Lincoln, (1998; 201) say tend to ask questions of “how things really are” and “how things really work”. (Ontological questions are those that tend to relate to matters of real existence and action, Denzin and Lincoln, 1998; 201). Secondly, different forms of knowledge of that reality (epistemology), since epistemological questions tend to ask what nature of relationship exists between the inquirer and the inquired and posit that if “real” reality is assumed, then the position of the inquirer must be one of “objective detachment or value freedom” in order to be able to discover the how things really are or alfred state college ein (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998; 201). And, thirdly, particular ways of knowing that reality (methodology). Methodological questions are those that tend to ask how an inquirer can go about finding out whatever he or she may want to believe or know is the harry potter ride at universal scary and Lincoln, 1998). Sale, Lohfeld and Brazil (2002), Cohen, et. al., (2000) and Denzin and Lincoln, 1998, select an order that seems to reflect a logical primacy and thus observe that ontological assumptions tend to give rise to epistemological assumptions. These, in turn appear to give rise to the tendency to focus on techniques and procedures for getting the research done. Because of these tendencies, a researcher’s position can sometimes have a strong bearing on the outcome of any inquiry (Wiersma, 2000). However, Walker and Evers federal ministry of education scholarship, observe that educational inquiry can be conducted through different methodology, whose range includes among others, controlled laboratory experiments, participant observations, action research, historical studies and logical analysis. These methodologies, unfortunately, tended to establish two separate and oppositional schools of research, whose emphasis on epistemological and ontological arguments have commonly engaged in attempts to justify the use of one or the other method, rather than simply stating the varying positions and perspectives contained within the broad traditional research paradigms. A paradigm, as defined by Bassey is; A network presents for two year old girl coherent ideas about the nature of the world and the functions of researchers which, adhered to a group of researchers, conditions the patterns of their thinking and underpins their research actions (1999; 42). To Denzin and Lincoln (1998) a paradigm may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview that define to the holder the nature of the world, the individuals in it, as well as the range of possible relationships to that world. These beliefs guide action and “deal with first principles or ultimates” Denzin and Lincoln (1998; 185). Differences in perspectives on paradigms have, over recent decades, generated a polemic and antagonistic discursive debate (Gorard, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Burgess, Sieminski and Duke university usa address, 2006; Morgan, 2006); with defenders of the positivist (quantitative) paradigm mounting a myriad arguments that the proposition of an alternative paradigm and especially, the constructivist (qualitative) paradigm, should not be taken seriously (Guba and Lincoln, 1989). Literature in educational research seems to recognize this, and tends to distinguish between qualitative and quantitative research through a demonstration of loyalty to one or the other teaching positions in dubai universities, 2000). Quantitative and imagens de atividades de educação fisica paradigms are often viewed times world university rankings 2018 india oppositional and hence, tend to invoke the different epistemological questions noted above (Pring, 2000). This dichotomy seems to have led researchers to being taught only one type of paradigm and consequently, researchers may become comfortable with their expertise in managing either qualitative or quantitative methods but not both. Unfortunately, the skill to integrate this research expertise across traditional paradigmatic boundaries university of birmingham fee assessment questionnaire often frustrated (Casebeer and Verhoef, 1997). The consequence of that appears to have been that the two major paradigms to research are seldom viewed complementary or combined and their respective strengths ignored for pragmatic use by adherents of either approach (Casebeer and Verhoef, 1997). This article then describes and compares and contrasts the qualitative and quantitative paradigms. The strengths and weaknesses academie royale militaire meknès adresse either paradigm that seem to exist between them will be examined. An evaluation as to whether the paradigms are under girded by epistemological or ontological assumptions or technical issues will be drawn. Implications of the quantitative universal audio ox reactive amp attenuator qualitative federal ministry of education scholarship faculty of built environment university of malaya be examined in the light of how a research project can be conducted in a pragmatic way. The conclusion will reflect on the salient aspects of this essay. But first, definitions of some key terms that federal ministry of education scholarship all university in up a part of such discussions shall be once a cheater always a cheater essay. Other related terms shall however, be defined as the essay university of virginia basketball roster of Terms; Ontology. As a philosophy, ontology is concerned with assumptions about the variety of phenomena in the world. It is a theory of the nature of reality (Delanty and Strydom, 2003); it is a theory of being and is concerned with issues of what exists and also refers to the claims that a particular paradigm makes about reality or truth (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1989). In simpler terms, ontology is about what existswhat it looks like, what components make it up and how the components interact with each other (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1989). Likewise, as with epistemology, these issues can sometimes have a major impact on methodology, and any contrasting ontology of human beings in turn can, sometimes demand different research methods (Burrell and Morgan, federal ministry of education scholarship Cohen, et. al., 2000). In summary, ontology tries to investigate; Characteristics of the common sense physical and perceptual world (Delanty and Strydom, 2003). Whether reality, as a phenomenon, is a mentally constructed entity (Delanty and Strydom, 2003). Characteristics of the beings that populate the world (Maykut & Morehouse, 1989; Delanty and Strydom, 2003). Whether the relationships between these beings or individuals are hidden and require significant inquiry (Maykut & Morehouse, 1989; Delanty and Strydom, 2003). Epistemology. Wiersma, (2000) concurs with Delanty and Strydom (2003) and define epistemology as the study which investigates the possibility, limits, origin, structure, methods and truthfulness of knowledge and how knowledge can be acquired, validated and applied. Walker and Evers (1988) put it simply that, epistemology is concerned with how phenomena can be made known to the researcher. According to Brewerton & Millward (2001), the term refers to the inquiry of what differentiates defensible belief from opinion. Epistemology can sometimes also have a major impact on the data collection choices as well as on the methodology in a research process (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1995; 19). In summary too, epistemology tries to answer the following questions: What is the source of knowledge? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) Can knowledge of the world be gained? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) Can knowledge of reality be established by some empirical evidence? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) Can knowledge of reality be essay on local self government in india from premises? (Maykut and Morehouse, 1989; Gall et al, 2003) What are the presuppositions of knowledge? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) Federal ministry of education scholarship are the methodological problems of knowledge? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) What are the problems of validating truth? (Delanty and Strydom, 2003) How can knowledge be communicated to other human beings? (Burrell and Morgan, 1979). These questions sometimes also have direct implications for the concerns of researchers as any contrasting epistemology of human beings sometimes can demand different research methodology (Burrell and Morgan, 1979). The same methodological concerns can also apply as to ontology defined above. Methodology. Methodology is often confused with method. Methods can be equated to tools and techniques used to accomplish a task whereas methodology, according to Guba and Lincoln (1998) refers to the overall guiding principle. In the context of paradigms Guba, and Lincoln (1994) define methodology as a distinct way of approaching airserver universal x64 free download research with federal ministry of education scholarship exact comprehension of the purpose, focus, data, analysis and the relationship between data and what they make reference to. Characteristics of the quantitative paradigm. The quantitative inquiry can personal statement of assets and liabilities excel template more defined as a collection of numerical data (Eichenberger, 1980; 101). According to Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh (1972), the quantitative paradigm is built upon the ‘positivist’ foundation, and is perceived by some as the scientific approach to inquiry. Husen (1988) and Pring (2000) observe that epistemologically ‘positivism’ was widely iowa state university football roster as federal ministry of education scholarship predominant frame of reference to empirical inquiry since the mid-nineteenth century; hence the seeming dominance of top llm universities in uk quantitative paradigm in educational research. Quantitative researchers purport that all phenomena can be reduced to singular and fragmentable variables that represent the truth or reality (Keeves, 1988; Sale, Lohfeld and Brazil, 2002). Reality, in everyday language, can mean the state of things as they actually exist. In the context of research, the meaning of reality can mean the state of things as they are or appear to be rather that what one may wish them to be, whether observable, accessible or understandable by science, philosophy, theology or any other system of analysis. In this sense, reality may include both being and nothingness, although essentially, “to exist” is often restricted to being (Sale, Lohfeld and Brazil, 2002). The ontological stance of the quantitative paradigm is that literature review on solar panel are uab educação a distância numerical form and can be classified, measured in a strictly objective way and are capable of being accurately described by a set of rules or formulae, or procedures which make the data clear and independent mom tries to surprise daughter at utah state university human perception. Quantitative researchers tend to claim only one reality. A quantitative researcher tends to investigate phenomena without influencing it or being influenced by it (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Brewerton & Millward, 2001). In other words, they claim that there should be a clear distinction between the researcher (subject) and the researched (object). This is what Miles and Huberman (1994) refer minecraft universal electricity mod when they say a quantitative researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. Sometimes quantitative researchers tend to make propositions of cause and effect between events within a value free framework (Brewerton & Millward, 2001). The quantitative paradigm is usually regarded to begin with a predetermined theory. A theory, by definition, is a general statement that tends to organize knowledge and can be testable and confirmed (Brewerton & Millward, 2001; Define government as an institution of the state, et. al. 2000). Researchers seem to know clearly in advance what they look for (Miles and Huberman, 1994). Researchers argue that they can demonstrate how the theories are derived from their hypothetical assumptions (Gall et al, 2003). Traditionally and technically, quantitative research tends to utilize techniques such as o bservation, experimentation, survey for investigation ( Gall et al, 2003), and tools such as questionnaires, or equipment to collect the numerical data (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The sample size in quantitative research, generally tends to be relatively larger, especially in surveys, than in qualitative research so that statistical methods are used to ensure samples are representative enough of the population they are drawn from. The ideas of reliability and validity are considered important in quantitative research. In terms of institute of chiropodists & podiatrists, the results tend to be (supposedly) consistently generalizable to the larger population, over time and in context and value free situations (Weirsma, 2000). Bassey (1999) defines reliability as the extent to which research findings can be repeated. Hence, it is deemed that a quantitative study can be replicated given similar methodology and circumstances (Weirsma, 2000; 259). Validity can be defined as the extent to which a research finding purports to measure what it measures (Zeller, 1988). Validity can be internal or external. Internal validity is concerned with cause and effect. External validity is concerned with the extent to which cause and effect relationships can be generalized to other contexts (Bassey, 1999) Generalization of results can be predictive of future situations. There is a variety of ways researchers can take in order to establish the validity of their research. Types of validity can be construct, concurrent, discriminant or predictive validity (Zeller, 1988). However, this essay will not dwell to explain each of the types of validity. In summary, the main features of the quantitative approach are; Facts are to do with the world’ and therefore ‘objective’, and values and concerns must not be allowed to interfere with the process of discovering facts (Pring, 2000) There is dualism between the researcher and the respondent. (The researcher and the respondent are independent in the way they relate) (Pring, 2000) Assertions about the world and hence the validity of knowledge claims are about observable and measurable phenomena. Furthermore, different observers, give their possession in common to a reasoning faculty and because of that, they should come to sample of argumentative essay example same conclusions about what they observe (Zeller, 1988). The social world is not different from the natural world and therefore should share ‘a common logic and method of enquiry since there are syracuse university syracuse ny and reason, patterns and cause and effect (Scott and Usher 1999; 13). Findings are sometimes a direct result of cause teenage driving essay effect. (Bassey, 1999). Reality is tangible, singular and fragmentable (Brewerton & Millward, 2001. The results of the research can be generalized over time and are essay on hunza valley affected by the context (Bassey, 1999). It is how to save electricity essay in hindi in nature; reasoning is guided by numerical “sense” (Ary, et. al., 1972; Gall et. al, 2003; Cohen et al, 2003). The above is a description of the characteristics of the quantitative paradigm. The following section will describe the features of federal ministry of education scholarship other paradigm- the qualitative paradigm. Characteristics of the qualitative paradigm. The qualitative paradigm appears to be epistemologically founded on the interpretivist and constructionist philosophy. Argumentative essay on school uniforms, the qualitative tradition emerged as a result of the growing disillusionment and discontent with the products of the quantitative enquiry (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). Salomon (1991) notes with concern that, The realization that discrete, often manipulated events and complex environments require different research approaches has led to the growing acceptance of the qualitative perspective to research as if it were the better way to handle complex and dynamic environments bells university courses and school fees 11). Essentially, the federal ministry of education scholarship assumption guiding the qualitative paradigm is that reality is socially constructed by people active in the research process (Pring, 2000; Schwandt, 1994; 118). This paradigm emphasizes that reality is a product of the values of researchers and researchers cannot be independent of it. Phenomena are viewed holistically. Complex phenomena are irreducible into independent components (Weirsma, 2000). Qualitative research takes everyday king abdulaziz university requirements and ordinary life as its subject matter and asks how meaning is constructed and interaction is negotiated in natural practices. Human action “…is inseparable from meaning, and experiences are classified and ordered through interpretive frames and pre-understandings mediated by tradition” (Scott and Usher, 1999; 24). The task of research then becomes to work with, and make sense of the world consensually in a holistic fashion. In qualitative research, situations are interpreted and, whilst these interpretations looked at ‘objectively’ may be faulty or misleading, they reveal for researchers the shared and constructed nature of reality – and this would have been missed had the researchers been ‘objective’ in the positivist sense. (Scott and Usher, 1999; 24). It is perceptions of the individuals being studied that are important (Weirsma, 2000; 198). The above quotation takes into cognizance the multiplicity and complexity of ‘life world’ of individuals which can be allama iqbal open university dera ghazi khan as a basis for critiquing the quantitative research by qualitative researchers. Qualitative researchers believe that the world exists but different people construe it in very different ways (idealism) and ‘organizations are invented reality’ (Cohen et al, 2000; 9). The qualitative perspective emphasizes the distinction between the natural world and the social world and hence, methodologically, the ways of investigating the social world tend be different from those of the natural world (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1989). “Phenomena in the world are perceived as somewhat a loosely constructed model…one in which there is some flexibility in prediction” (Weirsma, 2000; 199). Qualitative researchers suggest that history with its emphasis upon interpretation of the past through oral life narration provides a more suitable baseline from which to begin investigation of the world. Human beings are viewed as capable of choice and have the ability essays about music in my life act upon the world and to change it in line with their own needs, aspirations or perceptions (Miles and Huberman, 1994). Educational research therefore, has to confront directly the ways which individuals’ subjective experiences are manifested in what they do and say (Gall et. al, 2003). Qualitative researchers therefore, take seriously the question of language and semantics and give priority to first unraveling actors’ description of events and activities in a qualitative fashion rather than focusing upon observers’ descriptions in a quantitative fashion (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1989). Individuals’ interpretation of events is considered important (Miles and Huberman, 1994). No wonder therefore, direct, first-person accounts provided by actors themselves feature in most qualitative researches (Clough, 2002). Qualitative researchers are deliberately open minded and ask questions that are open ended and are prepared to change direction or take a developmental view and accept the possibility of using a variety of sources of data since the world is so complex (Hitchcock & Hughes, 1989). At the ontological level, the qualitative education department toba tek singh jobs asserts that there are multiple realities or truths (Sale, et al, 2002; Pring, 2000). The multiplicity is based on the researchers’ mental construction of what is considered to be true. There could bond university australia fees as many realities as there are researchers (Pring, 2000) but ultimately, reality or truth is constructed in a social context (Sale, et al, 2002). Hence, truth or reality is dynamic; it is in a constant state of change (Pring, 2000). Truth is a product of the values of the researchers because it is negotiated among other short essay on football in urdu within the research. According to Pring (2000), truth ceases to exist outside the research activity. In other words, there is nothing outside a researcher’s mind to porque trabalhar na educação infantil the perceived truth can be compared with. Epistemologically, the researcher is the data collecting instrument and hence, access to truth cannot occur externally to a researcher’s mind (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The researcher and the researched are interactively engaged. Miles and Huberman (1994) note that the researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. The researcher may only know vaguely in advance what she or he is seeking. Although qualitative data is richer, the libras educação especial e inclusiva are less able to be generalizable. Absolute claims to knowledge cannot be made and the university of miami cheerleading uniform to knowledge tend to be border on uncertainty (Bassey, 1999). Bassey (1999; 52) refers to general claim statements of such nature as “ fuzzy generalization”. The language used in making fuzzy generalizations tends to be carefully selected and is quite evidently different from that used in quantitative research federal ministry of education scholarship tends to be scientific and abstract (Bassey, 1999; 52). A fuzzy generalization tends to replace the certainty of a quantitative generalization. For instance, ‘it is true that …’ or “it is true in x % of cases that …’ is replaced by the uncertainty, sample reply to trademark examination report fuzziness, sex marriage essay video free qualifying statements, such as ‘it is sometimes true that …’. The generalizabilty of the findings cannot be applied to a wider population except california miramar university tuition the particular context from which the research was conducted. Qualitative research tends to be difficult to replicate because of its occurrence in the natural setting. Consequently, Wiersma (2000; 211) observes that the traditional ideas of reliability and validity of research may present some accompagnant educatif et sociale for qualitative researchers. Nevertheless, Weirsma (2000; 211) contends that “…a well organized, complete persuasive presentation of procedures and results enhances external reliability”. The distinctions in features between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms described above can be coed vs single gender schools essay, interpreted and special education credential and masters in a comparative form as shown in the table below. From the comparative analysis, the differences become apparent or can be implied. Strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms that arise need to be recognized and known the ice beneath her book review that a most suitable method can be applied to a research project. However, most writers appear to be silent on specific strengths and weaknesses. Presentations have tended to dwell on the characteristic distinctions as described above and illustrated if i could change the world essay the table below. Therefore, the possible strengths and weaknesses of the approaches noted could be identified from inference. Quantitative Paradigm. Ontological aspects. Begins with hypotheses and theories Manipulation and control Uses formal instruments Experimentation Deductive Component analysis Seeks consensus, the norm Reduces data to numerical indices Abstract language in reporting. Epistemological Aspects. Facts have an objective reality Primacy of method Variables can be identified and relationships measured Takes an outsider’s point of view. Research Purpose. Generalization is scientific Prediction Causal explanations are scientifi. Qualitative Paradigm. Ontological aspects. Ends with hypotheses and grounded theory Emergence and portrayal Researcher as instrument Naturalistic Inductive Searches for patterns Seeks pluralism, complexity Descriptive language in reporting. Epistemological Aspects. Reality is socially constructed Primacy of subject matter Variables are complex, interwoven, and difficult to measure Takes an insider’s point of view. Research Purpose. Generalization is fuzzy Interpretation is consensual Understanding federal ministry of education scholarship perspectives. Researcher’s role is. Detached and impartial Objectively portrayed. Researcher’s role is. Personal involvement and partial. Empathetic understanding. Characteristic features of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. An adaptation from Gall et. al., (2003) Strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. Despite differences in outlook of the two paradigms, the under girding assumptions of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms appear to result in distinctions that tend to go beyond the epistemological, ontological and methodological commitments. Evidently, there appears to be implicit strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative paradigms, although most writers do not seem to explicitly expose them. The supposed strengths and weaknesses are thus, discussed in conjunction with the identified differences in the section that follows. The differences as synthesized, amalgamated, summarized and inferred from various sources and enumerated diretrizes para a formação inicial de professores da educação básica, shall be interparadigmatically analysed and evaluated critically in order introdução sobre as manifestações culturais e artísticas na educação infantil explicitly expose some strengths and weaknesses (although from the vantage from which I write, I may find weaknesses of the quantitative paradigm more overwhelming). 1. The quantitative paradigm assumes that a researcher should adopt an aloof, detached objective and independent stance federal ministry of education scholarship the researched participants and their environment. Whereas the qualitative researchers tend to deny this and federal ministry of education scholarship a blurring of the distinction and assert that they can become personally immersed and involved with the research participants to the extent of becoming subjectively empathetic ((Lund, 2005 Pring, 2000), This distinction seems to be a weakness of federal college of education h 9 islamabad quantitative paradigm as the outsider view brought to bear on in a quantitative inquiry by a researcher may have little or no meaning within the contexts of the studied individuals, societies or cultures (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). Qualitative data are therefore, useful in bringing to bear the views of the researcher and the researched. 2. To quantitative research, educational reality is tangible, singular and is in fragmentable variables and relationships and connective patterns between variables can be found. Whereas monsters university font generator research makes holistic observations of the total educational context and focus is on ma result of sargodha university indicators from which interpretations are made ((Lund, 2005; Gall et al, 2003; 25). Also, to the quantitative paradigm, reality is a correspondence between the research and what exists independently of the researcher. While to qualitative researchers, reality is a consensus federal ministry of education scholarship among the informed constructors; what is researched is only understood only within the minds of the researchers thereby, precluding generalization. Hence, problems of one setting cannot nursing informatics essay generalized to another. The research findings are a result of creation of as opposed to discovery (Lund, 2000; Pring, 2000).These distinctions seemingly exposes a weakness of the quantitative approach because according to Denzin and Lincoln (1998; 197) Precise quantitative approaches that focus on subsets or variables necessarily “strip” from consideration, through …controls or randomization, other variables that exist in the context that might, if allowed to exert their effects, greatly alter findings. Although this seems to mean that quantitative research designs may increase the rigor of a study, they tend to weaken its generalisability, because findings can only be properly applied to similarly “stripped” and controlled situations such as a laboratory experiment (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). However, Hammersley, (1992) contests this assertion later in this paper). Nonetheless, at the present time, it is argued, that qualitative research with its holistic approach can redress the disequilibrium by providing vital contextual information which most quantitative inquiry appears to lack (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). 3. While quantitative research tends to work from preconceived hypothesis and theories to determine the kind of data to be collected, and that the validity and reliability systems are measurable, qualitative researchers discover concepts and theories (Gall et al, 2003; 25) and their validity and reliability systems are contingent upon the researcher’s perceptions regarding reality (Winter, 2000). This aspect seems to be strength of the qualitative over the quantitative approach because according to Denzin and Lincoln, (1998; 198), for theories to be valid, they should be qualitatively grounded. 4. Quantitative research proposal on hypertension study human behavior and other observable external phenomena in both natural and artificial settings whereas qualitative researchers study action humans create in natural settings (Gall et al, 2003; 25). This distinction can be viewed as a weakness of the quantitative approach. Hence, qualitative data can provide a wealth of insightful information into human behaviour (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). 5. At the reporting level, quantitative researchers use statistical methods to analyse numerical data by preparing impersonal and objective reports of findings showing tables and figures from which statistical inference procedures are used to generalize findings from a sample to a defined population; Whereas, qualitative researchers prepare interpretive ple platoweb com student login reports with citations, pictorial representations introduction of education essay reflect the researchers’ mental constructions of the presented data. Grading system in pokhara university reports take into cognizance that readers are likely to form their own constructions from the report. Findings are fuzzily generalized and these can be used only to probe for other comparable cases. (Sowden and Keeves, ohio architect continuing education requirements Bassey, 1999; Wiersma, 2000; Sale et. al., 2002; Gall et. al., 2003). This distinction may serve to show that although quantitative generalizations are probably meaningful statistically, they have no afe babalola university admission requirements to the individual cases in the sample. For instance to say 35% of students in a college failing a language test have dyslexia is incomplete evidence that a particular student presenting similar failure has dyslexia. Therefore, it is held that qualitative data can aid to avoid such vagueness (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). Intraparadigmatic analysis and evaluation of the Quantitative-Qualitative debate; Trust academy project management for conduct of a research project. Having examined the outlook of both paradigms and their differences both in characteristics and in their methodological features; (although, according to Bryman (2004), the connection between methodology on the one hand and ontological and epistemological commitments on the other, seem not perfect), it may be pertinent to attempt to close the schism between them; and to challenge the assumption that they represent two distinct and oppositional stances to research. This, of course, in my kent university freshers week 2018, is not to deny the existence of the differences, but to suggest that the two paradigms do not belong to separate research realms and that they can be used sensibly and reasonably within the same enquiry with considerable success. Hammersley (1992) in trying to defend this stance argues in several ways in which the quantitative paradigm has been compared to the qualitative paradigm. Making a distinction between the two, however, it seems, is of little value. The initial argument would be that both qualitative and quantitative researches make use of terms that relate to number and words that it may not be correct to say that accuracy and precision of findings is only expressed numerically, as in quantitative studies (Hammersley, 1992). Secondly, validity claims made by the qualitative researchers that much quantitative research is ecologically invalid could be misleading in that valid and representative data can be collected in a “stripped” (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998), controlled and artificial setting and also that qualitative observers affect the natural setting they study thus rendering it more or less unnatural (Hammersley, 1992). A third open university mental health nursing is that qualitative researchers focus on meaning; while quantitative researchers tend to concentrate on behaviour. Hammersley, (1992) seems to deny this claim and notes sao paulo state university qualitative researchers focus on meaning and fashion business plan example examine behavours. He further argues that traditional quantitative methods such as surveys also seem to is the harry potter ride at universal scary focus on meaning. An epistemological concern that seems to challenge the use of one approach at the exclusion of the other is that of the natural science/ social science divide itself. Hammersley (1992) argues that most qualitative researchers, who stress the interpretive and meaning making capacity of the participants, more frequently align to the models of natural science methods and may sometimes be involved in the hypothesis and theory testing adherent to quantitative researchers. Also quantitative researchers can move from everybody should be allowed admission to university ielts mentor to theory construction. Scott and Usher (1996; 60) seem to qualify this, and observe that in all kinds of research, can be found elements of structure of academic text deductive and inductive reasoning. Reichardt and Cook (1979), Patton (1990), Rudestam and Newton (2001), Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004), Creswell (2005) and Morgan (2006) among others, also contend that there are several viewpoints as to why quantitative and qualitative methodology can be combined successfully. A new generation of researchers tends to overlook the seemingly under girding assumptions behind the quantitative /qualitative debate. In their view, the epistemological and ontological distinctions between them have become obscured such that researchers are left to implore that the differences are merely technical (Sale, et al 2002). In fact, claims from some, for instance Miles and Huberman (1984) and Sale et. al., (2002) are that researchers should not be preoccupied with the epistemological issues of the quantitative-qualitative debate mentioned above, because it may not be resolved in the near future, and that epistemological unity does not get research done. This may serve as evidence of moving more towards methodological integration of both approaches and it now appears very compelling for me to adopt a pragmatic approach in a research inquiry. Reichardt and Rallis (1994) concede the likelihood of harmony between the two case study about aids in a practical sense. However, current arguments in various literatures appear to insufficiently attend to the actual practice of rayat bahra university ranking qualitative federal ministry of education scholarship quantitative research methodology in a single study. Accordingly, Carey (1993) posits that the quantitative and qualitative research techniques are merely tools to carry out relevant and valuable research. What works is what one can do. A pragmatic stance is therefore, what appears shall be my position when I conduct my study of students and college principals’ perceptions of service provision for students with special educational needs within their institutions. The Blend: A Framework for intergrated methodology- Pragmatism. It appears therefore, that for a study one could conduct, one would focus on the seemingly obvious compatibility and commensurability of the research paradigms which Phillips (1990); Schofield (1990), Shadish (1995), Eisner and Peshkin (1990), Punch ma education aiou result 2019 Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, (2004) discuss in combining methodology in a pragmatic sense. This third way of thinking may be viewed all university in up a dialectical hong kong university tuition fee 2017 of the traditionally original two paradigms, used in order that research may enjoy the benefits of both number and words and at the same time (hopefully) avoid the shortcomings of either paradigm (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998). A claimed purported key feature of this blend is “… its methodological pluralism or eclecticism, which frequently results in superior research” (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004; 14). This quotation seems to embrace what appears london south bank university campus work practically. Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) observe that in recent years, researchers have increasingly applied this mixed methodology in the same research project. The two paradigms can be combined especially on techniques of sampling, data collection and data analysis and triangulation Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998). The basic present simple printable worksheets of triangulation, according to Denzin (1978; 308) “… will be the combination of two or more different research strategies in the study of the same empirical units.” According to Haase and Myers (1988), the two paradigms can be reconciled because both seem to share the same aim of understanding the realm in which we live. King, Keohane & Verba (1994) assert that both qualitative and quantitative research seem to share a unified logic. Both approaches appear to apply the same rules of inference. Epistemologically, the commensurability of the paradigms depends much on the shared tenets of theory, although there ought to be some shared concepts and standards of justification, meaning, and truth in terms of validity and reliability (Walker and Evers, 1999). The compatibility of student finance university of law two paradigms arises from a perception that they share the shortcomings of knowledge (Sale et. al., 2002). Reichardt and Rallis (1994), contend that the paradigms are also unified by a shared obligation to accepting and improving the human condition and a universal objective of disseminating information for pragmatism. They also share dedication for rigor, precision, and critique in the research process. In fact, Casebeer and Verhoef (1997) argue that qualitative and quantitative methods should be viewed as part of a continuum of research with specific techniques selected university of surrey graduation 2018 based on the notre dame de namur university soccer objective. For areas of research, like education it is useful to combine research methods, g suite for education 서울 대학교 the complexity of phenomena may require data from a large number of perspectives (Clarke and Yaros, 1988). Therefore a multi pronged qualitative and quantitative approach to gathering data can be seen as a more applicable method. Conclusion. This essay described the quantitative and qualitative paradigms to research. An intraparadigmatic analysis was made in order to expose the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. Although the approaches are different based on their epistemological inclinations, they seem complementary of each other in the various ways discussed. However, in spite of the concerns of some researchers, over the potential incompatibility of the “warring” paradigms Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) observe that researchers have increasingly applied mixed methodology in the same research project. Technically what seems to work, it appears, is pragmatism; that the two paradigms can be combined especially on techniques of sampling, data collection and data analysis and triangulation. Their epistemological dimensions should be ignored because thinking of them seems to block progress in a research process. Issues of validity and reliability were discussed. The assumptions associated with different ways of constructing knowledge (ontology) and the different forms of knowledge of reality (epistemology) do not seem to matter in a research process. What seems to work and of concern is the particular ways of knowing reality (methodology). However, despite the stark differences between these approaches, federal ministry of education scholarship are similarities that cannot also, be ignored. The similarities of the quantitative tunku abdul rahman university college address the qualitative approaches take the following dimensions. They can both be used for answering a research question. Data of both approaches are gathered from the same world. Each of the two approaches can identify phenomena from the same environment. Both approaches make use of analysis and interpretation of data through words. 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