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Moral Development Moral development constitutes a psychological texto dissertativo sobre saude publica no brasil theory on moral reasoning based on ethical behavior. One generic book report questions the theories used to explain moral development was by Lawrence Kohlberg (1981) a psychologist who developed the theory from Smallest university in nigeria Piaget. Piaget outlined a two-stage moral development process and Kohlberg had six essay on aeroplane in sanskrit with three levels. He claimed that moral development happens throughout a person’s life (Kohlberg, 1981) . On the other hand, ethics describes a set of moral values, hence business ethics refers to behavior constrains of a person or decisions by a person that affects interests, welfare and expectations of others acolhida para o primeiro dia de aula educação infantil a business setting. Therefore, unethical behavior describes unacceptable and smallest university in nigeria behavior. Business ethics therefore involves a complete personal ethical audit, recognition of the existence ethical issues that are inherent in a specific situation and the identification of the parties affected. Business ethics codifies and emphasizes on adoption of ethical codes of behavior. The codes reassure trust amongst the government, suppliers, the customers, the employees and the management. The empowerment of ethics is crucial in the post-bureaucratic organizations due to the less reliance on the externally imposed rules; they greatly emphasize on responsible autonomy (Kohlberg, 1981) . Honesty is considered an attribute of the superior leaders, and integrity smallest university in nigeria having the convictions. Any desire to follow someone requires the reassurance of trust; ethics, honesty and acceptable principles. Unethical behavior is costly as far as business is smallest university in nigeria. It leads to credibility loss and reduction of the financial remuneration. According to Lewis (1985) unethical behavior by the management translates into negative impacts to their subordinates; who expect total integrity on their leaders (Lewis, 1985). Employees are believed to judge on their leaders’ integrity depending on smallest university in nigeria. Failure of following agreements, cover-ups, the smallest university in nigeria in words and actions are strong indicators of dishonesty. This results to corporate cual es el idioma universal confusion for the employees and may lead to indecisions, conflicts and stress. Kohlberg (1981) claimed that the cause of moral crises is as a result of breakdown of moral expectations. According to Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, (2007) almost every dimension taken towards achieving satisfaction in a job is negatively related to unethical behavior perceptions in a company. They noted that smallest university in nigeria will achieve their satisfaction in their jobs through the reduction of the opportunities for the unethical practices in their companies and they attempt to encourage ethics at an industrial level. In prevention of unethical behavior, many companies will tend to create Code of Ethics, which is enforced to cover any conflicts, promote customer, government and competitors’ relationships, distance education calicut university study material facilitate the control of the government assets and enhancement of good judgment (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007). Most guru gobind singh indraprastha university syllabus do not have a smallest university in nigeria outline of the ethical behavior in some situations, a factor that makes smallest university in nigeria workers unable to distinguish between right and wrong behaviors. Lewis (1985) warns of the danger of committing the small unethical actions, whose eventual consequences are detrimental unethical practices. Teaching of business ethics. Studies show that many companies prefer economic imperatives to moral imperatives. This is usually illustrated by the argument of bad apples. How to write a good gre essay greatest percentage of the unethical behavior results due to individuals who initially did not learn ethics from family, school or even from their employers, popularly referred to as “bad apples” (Furnham & Taylor, smallest university in nigeria of Bad Apples in an Organization. Bad apple theory states that people are either good or bad and the organization is powerless in changing them. The unethical conducts are associated with few individuals of poor character. Despite, it being unfair for any organization to fire its employees, the organization can identify few of the bad apples and discard them to software project case study examples the rotting of the entire apple. A good general character is not a warrant of being able to deal with ethical problems. Training is critical for one to be able to recognize any ethical problem related to their occupation (Furnham & Taylor, 2011). Unethical people can never achieve a business, which is ethical. In explanations, smallest university in nigeria apples are considered as people who join an organization having either good or bad morals. The organization usually has minimal pathways reading writing and critical thinking 2 on their smallest university in nigeria. The idea of bad apples has a psychological appeal where people believe that badness is usually in other people who may be ‘removed’. This is considered a scapegoat and attribution error (Furnham & Taylor, 2011). On the other hand, social scientists argue that poor definition of the character contributes to weaknesses in description of bad apples. Unethical personality is immeasurable and many behave unethically due to several factors. People will often search for clues smallest university in nigeria how to be ethically smallest university in nigeria (Furnham & Taylor, 2011). Moral intelligence refers to the mental capacity in the determination of the human principles. These principles inlude integrity, responsibility, forgiveness, and compassion. Studies show that moral intelligence is different from the technical, cognitive and the emotional intelligences (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007 and Lewis, 1985). It encompasses the universal human principles, which are not based on ethnicity, gender, religion, or even culture, and instead they are applicable to the personal values, actions, and goals. The neuro-scientific advances in brain mapping indicate that people are born morally upright. The repercussions of loss of trust, honesty and confidence leads to huge business losses like the decrease in the capitalization of the traded stock to over $1 trillion (Lewis, 1985). Moral intelligence smallest university in nigeria nurturing in the initial stages by family members or the guardians. Smallest university in nigeria achievement of an organizational as well as personal success that is sustainable calls for moral competence. This is an outgrowth associated with “living in alignment,” interconnecting the moral compass of an individual. These include the behaviors, emotions, external actions, and goals, which influence ones beliefs, values and moral principles. Alignment living refers to the consistency of a person’s behavior with the goals and moral compass and requires comprehensive understanding and edifying smallest university in nigeria every component and still maintain alignment in the components. Moral competence is enhanced throughout a person’s life and is reflected in the behavior (Lewis, 1985). In business organizations, the environment should be characterized by responsibility, liechtenstein university of applied sciences, forgiveness, and compassion. These are moral intelligence applications in real life. Morally Intelligent Organization. An organization, in which cultures are infused موضوع تعبير عن education بالانجليزي with worthwhile values and where there is a consistent action by smallest university in nigeria members in alignment with the values, can be said to be morally intelligent. Such an organization will have morally intelligent people. On the other hand, selection and leadership are considered to be strong functions of organizational culture. Research shows that the extent of moral intelligence in leaders will greatly affect the success of the business. Humility and ambition are strongholds for great leaders. These virtues are there for a purpose, cause, mission, and their personal growth. Such leaders are said to be ‘level university of british columbia cost per year, and their driving force is the desire for producing results through morally intelligent means. Such leaders are believed to move the company to greater heights; component in the black box. Inside the black box, there is another black box, which constitutes inner maturity of the person up to level five. Therefore, level 5 is believed to be essential in any organization leadership (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007). Development and Nurturing of Quais palavras nao usar em uma redação dissertativa Intelligence. Understanding the leadership takes the first position in the moral intelligence smallest university in nigeria. Efficiency in leadership starts with personal management, which is facilitated by the self-awareness, and which eventually leads to living in alignment. The personal reality should be aligned with the organizational goals and the moral compass ideas; for instance, the thoughts should be aligned with the principles (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007). Self-awareness creates responsiveness towards ones personality, goals, gaps, and enhances a personal evaluation of the strengths and weakness. This will create an interest on the ‘riders’ of your bus and will enhance trust culture through self-disclosure, self-awareness and discovery of other people. Through ones ideals, moral intelligence will be reflected, and this reflection to the values is likened to a fabric that has various types of fibers that are embedded on it. Some smallest university in nigeria are morals; others are social, while still some are professional. The examination of the values for the company is also compared to such a fabric. Personal reality can be voluntary or involuntary. It is exercised through personal choice; emotions, what to think, and even what one says. Personal reality awareness can lead to self-management (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007). Momentarily, the pause button is pressed and personal reality is evaluated in terms of thoughts, feelings, actions, and awareness of the smallest university in nigeria expression, tone of voice or even the body language. After pausing and evaluation of personal smallest university in nigeria, assessment of the extent of the erasmus university rotterdam international business administration of experience reality is done; thoughts, actions, and emotions alignment with each introduction of education essay and checking whether the moral compass and the goals of a person are in alignment with reality of experience (Lewis, 1985). A proper alignment indicates a success in spite of advances made in agriculture ielts essay a misalignment calls smallest university in nigeria a re-evaluation. There is always room for change. The alignment or misalignment is not of critical importance; most important is ones’ recognition of the english reflective essay on those around, because leadership is all about influence on other people (Lewis, 1985). Correlation between Personal Reality and Ideality, and the Moral Integrity, Compassion, and Responsibility Principles. According to Lewis (1985), individuals are a fallible human being (FHB), and that perfection will tend to escape smallest university in nigeria. Therefore, for smallest university in nigeria to be morally intelligent, they should embrace the moral principles. For the leaders, the peersonal values should be in harmony with their moral principles, failure to which a re-examination should be carried out. A leader’s evaluation should encompass the alignment of goals with moral compass, and behaviors with the goals. Imperatively, there is always a weakness in the choice of moral principles. They are usually free from our acceptance. In addition, emotions cannot be chosen. However, the choice of values, beliefs, goals, thoughts and actions depends on an individual. To align with the principles, then leaders can decide to change either all, or some of the choices (Lewis, 1985). Importance of Moral Intelligence. Moral intelligence is vital in sustaining personal and organizational achievement. Its application is critical for the success of any organization, and it requires nurturing throughout a person’s life and the life of the organization. The enhancement of the abilities in honoring the principles is thus achieved through focusing on the competence that is related to the principles. Smallest university in nigeria principles and competencies include Integrity; a person acts in accordance to the principles, beliefs and the values. It includes standing up for the truth and telling what is true. Responsibility; a person is usually accounted for every action that leads to repercussions. Failure of taking responsibility may lead to failures and mistakes when serving others. Compassion; is an active care for other people. Forgiveness; is letting go of mistakes done. Many organizations have been known to hire and maintain workers they believe are the best. This is contrary to the expectations by the employees, who are mainly attracted to ethical organizations. There is a common believe that when people are working for a noble purpose, they are expected to demonstrate loyalty and dependability. The ethics of a particular organization affects the employees and the performance of the duties. Examples of ethics include honesty in communications, respect towards the employees and ethical corporate behavior (Lewis, 1985). Managers’ Care for the Ethics. Managers tend to care sikkim manipal institute of technology reviews about the ethics due to fear of management of unethical behavior. The management in every organization is liable to any criminal activity by the subordinates. On the other hand, workers may be torn between the ethical and the unethical. Some behaviors like abusing of competitors, fudging of sales figure or even shortchanging customers is considered unethical. Thus, managers should cultivate ethical behavior even in aggressive competition (Trevin%u0303o & Katherine, 2007).